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The consolidated patents act
The consolidated patents act







Publication of the Patents Act, cf. Consolidated Act No. 733 of 27 November 1989 as amended by section 49 in Act No. 130 of 26 February 1992 and Act No. 1057 of 23 December 1992. The published Act shall not apply in full, until the Agreement relating to Community Patents enters into force. The Minister of Industry shall draw up an Order to that effect (cf. section 2 in Act No. 1057 of 23 December 1992, reproduced at the end of his Act).







Part 1
General provisions








Section 1







(1)     Any person who has made an invention which is susceptible of industrial application, or his successor in title shall, in accordance with this Act have the right on application to be granted a patent for the invention and thereby obtain an exclusive right to exploit the invention commercially.







(2)     The following subject-matter or activities as such shall in particular, not be regarded as inventions:







     (i)     discoveries, scientific theories and mathematical methods,







     (ii)     artistic creations,







     (iii)     plans, rules or methods for intellectual activity, for games or for business activity or computer programs,







     (iv)     presentation of information.







(3)     Methods for surgical or therapeutic treatment or for determination of diagnoses, practised on human beings or animals, shall not be regarded as inventions, either. This provision shall not prevent the grant of patents for products, including substances and compounds, for use in any of these methods.







(4)     Patents shall not be granted in respect of







     (i)     inventions the exploitation of which would be contrary to law and order or morality, or







     (ii)     species of plants or animals or essential biological processes for the production of plants or animals. Patents may, however, be granted for microbiological processes and the products thereof.







Section 2







(1)     Patents shall be granted only for inventions which are new in relation to the state of the art prior to the date of filing of the patent application and which, moreover, differ essentially therefrom.







(2)     The state of the art shall be held to comprise everything made available to the public by means of a written description, lecture, exploitation or in any other way. The contents of patent applications filed in this country before the said date of filing shall also be regarded as comprised in the state of the art, if such applications are made available to the public in accordance with the rules in section 22 of this Act. The same shall apply to the contents of applications for registration of utility models filed in this country before the said date of filing, if such applications are made available to the public in accordance with the rules relating to utility models. The requirement in subsection 1 hereof to the effect that the invention shall differ essentially from the state of the art shall, however, not apply in relation to the contents of such applications.







(3)     Provisions to the effect that for the purposes of subsection 2 hereof applications provided for in sections 29 and 38 of this Act.







(4)     The requirement under subsection 1 hereof that inventions shall be new shall not prevent the grant of patents for known substances or compounds for use in the methods referred to in section 1 (3) of this Act, provided that the use of such substance or compound is not known for any of those methods.







(5)     Patents may, however, be granted for inventions irrespective of the fact that they have been made available to the public within the last 6 months prior to the filing of the application, if this is a consequence of







     (i)     evident abuse in relation to the applicant or his legal predecessor, or







     (ii)     the fact that the applicant or his legal predecessor has displayed the invention at an official, or officially recognized, international exhibition falling within the terms of the Convention on International Exhibitions, signed at Paris on 22 November 1928.







Section 3







(1)     The exclusive right conferred by a patent shall imply that no one, except the proprietor of the patent, may without permission exploit the invention







     (i)     by making, offering, putting on the market or using a product which is the subject-matter of the patent, or by importing or possessing the product for these purposes, or







     (ii)     by using a process which is the subject-matter of the patent or by offering the process for use in this country, if the person offering the process knows, or it is obvious in the circumstances that the use of the process is prohibited without the consent of the proprietor of the patent, or







     (iii)     by offering, putting on the market or using a product obtained by a process which is the subject-matter of the patent or by importing or possessing the product for these purposes.







(2)     The exclusive right shall also imply that no one, except the proprietor of the patent, may without permission exploit the invention by supplying or offering to supply any person who is not entitled to exploit the invention with means for working it in this country, if these means relate to an essential element of the invention and the person supplying or offering to supply the means knows, or it is obvious in the circumstances, that these means are suitable and intended for such use. This provision shall not apply when the means are staple commodities, except when the person supplying or offering to supply the means induces the person supplied to commit acts as referred to in subsection 1 hereof. For the purposes of the 1st and 2nd clause hereof, persons performing acts as referred to in (iii) or (iv) hereof shall not be considered entitled to exploit the invention.







(3)     The exclusive right shall not extend to:







     (i)     acts done for non-commercial purposes,







     (ii)     acts concerning products put on the market in this country by the proprietor of the patent or with his consent,







     (iii)     acts done for experimental purposes relating to the subject-matter of the patented invention, or







     (iv)     preparation in a pharmacy of a medicinal product according to a prescription in individual cases or acts concerning the medicinal product so prepared.







(4)     In respect of acts concerning products put on the market in another Member State which has ratified or acceded to the Agreement relating to Community Patents, Articles 76 and 81 (3) of the Community Patent Convention shall apply.







Section 4







(1)     Any person who, at the time when the patent application was filed, was exploiting the invention commercially in this country may, notwithstanding the grant of a patent, continue such exploitation retaining its general character, provided that the exploitation did not constitute an evident abuse in relation to the applicant or his legal predecessor. Such a right of exploitation shall also, under similar conditions, be enjoyed by any person who had made substantial preparations for commercial exploitation of the invention in this country.







(2)     The right provided for in subsection 1 hereof shall only be transferred to others together with the business in which it has arisen or in which the exploitation was intended.







Section 5







(1)     Notwithstanding a patent having been granted for an invention, persons other than the proprietor of the patent may exploit the invention by the use of a foreign vehicle, vessel or aircraft when it temporarily or accidentally enters this country.







(2)     The Minister of Industry may direct that, notwithstanding the grant of a patent, spare parts and accessories for aircraft may be imported into and used in this country for the repair of aircraft belonging to a foreign state which grants similar rights in respect of Danish aircraft.







Section 6







(1)     On request, an application for a patent for an invention which has been disclosed not earlier than 12 months before the date of filing in an application for a patent or the registration of a utility model in this country or for a patent, an inventor’s certificate or registration of a utility model in another country party to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of 20 March 1883, shall, for the purposes of section 2 (1), (2) and (4) and < or section 4 Act, said utility model filed, that, principle,>







(2)     The Minister of Industry shall lay down the particulars of the fight to claim such priority.







Part 2
Patent applications and examination and other
processing thereof, etc.








Section 7







(1)     The Patent Authority of this country shall be the Patent Office, headed by a Director General, and the Patent Board of Appeal (Board of Appeal for Industrial Property). For the purposes of this Act, the ‘Patent Authority’ means the Patent Authority of this country unless otherwise stated.







(2)     The Patent Board of Appeal shall be established by the Minister of Industry for the examination of appeals from decisions of the Patent Office, cf. sections 25 and 67 of this Act, and appeals from decisions pursuant to the Danish Designs Act, the Danish Trade Marks Act, etc. The Patent Board of Appeal shall consist of not more than 18 members who shall be appointed for a term of 5 years. 2 of the members, one of whom shall be the chairman, shall possess the general qualifications for appointment to the office of High Court judge whereas the other members together shall possess the best possible expert knowledge of patents, designs, trade marks and matters placed under the authority of the Patent Board of Appeal by other legislation. They shall be graduates from the Technical University of Denmark (Danmarks Tekniske Honjskole), another institution of higher education or have acquired the necessary expert knowledge in another way.







(3)     Having regard to the circumstances of each particular case, the chairman shall decide which and how many of the members of the Board are to participate in the examination of the case.







(4)     The Minister of Industry shall lay down further rules for the activities of the Patent Board of Appeal including rules relating to proceedings and rules to the effect that the appellant shall pay a fee for the examination of an appeal.







Section 8







(1)     An application for a patent shall be filed in writing with the Patent Authority or, in the cases referred to in <>







(2)     The application shall contain a description of the invention, including drawings where necessary, and a precise statement of the matter for which protection by the patent is sought (one or more claims). The fact that the invention relates to a chemical compound shall not imply that specific use must be indicated in the claim. The description shall be sufficiently clear to enable a person skilled in the art to carry out the invention. An invention which relates to a microbiological process or to a product obtained by such a process shall, in the cases specified in section 8a of this Act, only be regarded as disclosed in a sufficiently clear manner, if also the requirements of section 8a are fulfilled.







(3)     The application shall also contain an abstract of the description and claims. The abstract shall merely serve for use as technical information and may not be taken into account for any other purpose.







(4)     The name of the inventor shall be indicated in the application. If the applicant is not the inventor, he shall prove his right to the invention.







(5)     The applicant shall pay the prescribed application fee. For the patent application the prescribed renewal fee in respect of each fee year beginning before the application is finally decided upon shall also be paid. The fee year shall comprise 1 year and shall the first time be reckoned from the date of filing of the application and thereafter from the corresponding day of the calendar year.







Section 8a







(1)     If, in order to carry out the invention, this involves the use of a micro-organism which is neither available to the public nor describable in the documents of the application so as to enable a person skilled in the art to carry out the invention, a culture of the micro-organism shall be deposited not later than on the date of filing of the application. The culture shall thereafter always be deposited in such manner that any person entitled under this Act to a sample of the culture may have the sample furnished in Denmark. The Minister of Industry shall lay down rules as to where deposits may be made.







(2)     If a deposited culture ceases to be viable, or if for any other reason a sample of the culture cannot be furnished, the culture may be replaced by a new culture of the same microorganism within the prescribed period and otherwise in accordance with rules laid down by the Minister of Industry. If so, the new deposit shall be deemed to have been made already on the date of the previous deposit.







Section 9







If the applicant so requests and pays the prescribed fee, the Patent Authority shall, in accordance with rules laid down by the Minister of Industry, cause the application to be searched by an International Searching Authority under the provisions of Article 15 (5) of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, done at Washington on 19 June 1970.







Section 10







In the same application a patent may not be applied for in respect of two or more mutually independent inventions.







Section 11







If a patent is applied for in respect of an invention which is disclosed by the applicant in an earlier patent application in which no final decision has been given, the later application shall, at the request of the applicant and on the conditions laid down by the Minister of Industry, be deemed to have been filed at the time when the documents disclosing the invention were received by the Patent Authority.







Section 12







If the applicant is not a resident of this country, he shall have an agent residing in this country to represent him in all matters concerning the application.







Section 13







An application for a patent may not be amended in such a way that protection is claimed for subject-matter which was not disclosed in the application at the time when it was filed or at the time when it shall be deemed to have been filed under section 14 of this Act.







Section 14







(1)     If the applicant amends the application within 6 months from its date of filing, the application shall, if the applicant so requests, be deemed to have been filed at the time when the amendment was received by the Patent Authority.







(2)     Any request under





Section 15







(1)     If the applicant has not complied with the requirements of the application, or if the Patent Authority has other objections to the acceptance of the application, the applicant shall be notified accordingly and be invited to file his observations or to correct the application within a time limit to be specified. The Patent Authority may, however, make such amendments in the abstract as it finds necessary without consulting the applicant.







(2)     If the applicant fails to file the required observations or to take steps to correct the application within expiry of the time limit, the application shall be shelved. The notification referred to in





(3)     The examination of the application shall, however, be resumed if the applicant submits his observations or takes steps to correct the application within 4 months after expiry of the specified time limit and pays the prescribed resumption fee.







(4)     If any renewal fee is not paid according to 41 and 42 of this Act, the application shall be shelved without previous notification. In the case of an application shelved for that reason the proceedings for grant may not be resumed.







Section 16







If, after having received the applicant’s reply, the Patent Authority still has objections to the acceptance of the application, and the applicant has had an opportunity to comment on the objections, the application shall be refused, unless the Patent Authority considers it necessary once more to invite the applicant under





Section 17







(1)     If any person claims before the Patent Authority that he, and not the applicant, is entitled to the invention, the Patent Authority may, if it finds the question doubtful, invite him to bring it before the courts within a time limit to be specified. If the invitation is not complied with, the Patent Authority may disregard the claim when deciding on the patent application. Information to that effect shall be given in the invitation.







(2)     If legal proceedings have been instituted concerning the right to an invention for which a patent has been applied for, the proceedings for grant may be suspended, until a final decision has been given in the legal proceedings.







Section 18







(1)     If any person proves to the Patent Authority that he, and not the applicant, is entitled to the invention, the Patent Authority shall transfer the application to the said person, if he so requests. The transferee shall pay a new application fee.







(2)     If a request has been made for the transfer of a patent application, the application shall not be shelved, refused or accepted until a final decision has been made on request.







Section 19







(1)     If the application complies with the requirements, and no objections have been found to the grant of a patent, and it has been established that the applicant approves the text on the basis of which patent may be granted, the Patent Authority shall notify the applicant to the effect that patent may be granted against payment of the prescribed fee for publication of the patent specifications.







(2)     When the Patent Authority has forwarded a notification as referred to in





(3)     The fee for publication of the patent specifications shall be paid within 2 months after the Patent Authority has forwarded a notification under





Section 20







(1)     When the requirements in section 19 of this Act have been complied with, the Patent Authority shall grant the patent and issue letters patent. The grant of patent shall be advertised at the same time.







(2)     Patent specifications including description, claims and abstract, shall be obtainable from the Patent Authority at the same time as the grant of patent is advertised. The patent specifications shall state the proprietor of the patent and the inventor.







Section 21







(1)     Any person shall be entitled to file an opposition with the Patent Authority against a patent which has been granted. The opposition shall be made in writing stating the grounds on which the opposition is filed and shall be submitted to the Patent Authority within 9 months from advertisement of the grant of patent. The opposition shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee.







(2)     An opposition shall only be filed on the grounds that the patent has been granted irrespective of the fact that







     (i)     the requirements in <>







     (ii)     it relates to an invention which has not been described in a sufficiently clear manner as to enable a person skilled in the art to carry out the invention on the basis of the description, or







     (iii)     the subject-matter extends beyond the contents of the application filed.







(3)     The Patent Authority shall advertise the filing of an opposition.







Section 22







(1)     As from the date on which patent is granted, the files of the application shall be available to the public.







(2)     When 18 months have elapsed from the date of filing or, if priority has been claimed under sections 72 or 73 of this Act.







(3)     At the request of the applicant, the files shall be made available earlier than prescribed in 2 hereof.







(4)     When the files are made available under 3 hereof, a notice to that effect shall be published.







(5)     If a document contains business secrets which do not relate to an invention for which patent is applied for or has been granted, the Patent Authority may, on request, when circumstances make it desirable, decide that the document shall not be available or only available in part. If such a request has been filed, the document shall not be made available until a decision has been made or during the period within which the decision may be appealed against. An appeal shall have suspensive effect.







(6)     If a culture of a micro-organism has been deposited under section 8a of this Act, any person shall have the right to obtain a sample of the culture when the files become available under 2 or





(7)     Notwithstanding





(8)     The request for the furnishing of the sample shall be filed in writing with the Patent Authority and shall contain a declaration to observe the restrictions on the use of the sample which appear from rules laid down by the Minister of Industry. If the sample is to be furnished to an expert in the art, the declaration shall instead be given by the latter.







Section 23







(1)     If an opposition has been filed, the proprietor of the patent shall be notified accordingly and be given an opportunity to file his observations on the opposition.







(2)     The Patent Authority may examine an opposition even though the patent has terminated or will terminate under sections 51, 54 or 96 of this Act, even if the opposition is withdrawn, or even if the opponent dies or loses his capacity to enter into legal transactions.







(3)     The Patent Authority may revoke a patent or maintain it unamended or amended. If the Patent Authority finds that the patent may be maintained as amended, and it has been established that the proprietor of the patent consents to this, the patent specifications shall be amended accordingly after the proprietor of the patent has paid the prescribed fee for publication hereof. Copies of the amended patent specifications shall be obtainable from the Patent Authority.







(4)     If the proprietor of the patent does not approve the maintenance of the patent as amended or does not pay the fee for publication of new patent specifications in time, the patent shall be revoked.







(5)     The Patent Authority shall advertise its decision on the opposition.







Section 24







(1)     An appeal from the final decision of the Patent Office concerning a patent application may be filed by the applicant with the Patent Board of Appeal. The proprietor of the patent may file an appeal with the Patent Board of Appeal, if a patent has been revoked, or if the Patent Office finds that the patent may be maintained as amended following an opposition. The opponent may file an appeal with the Patent Board of Appeal, if a patent is maintained unamended, or if the Patent Office finds that the patent may be maintained as amended despite a duly filed opposition. If the opponent withdraws his appeal, such appeal may nevertheless be examined when circumstances make it desirable.







(2)     Decisions refusing a request for resumption under section 19 (3) of this Act or complying with a request for transfer under section 18 of this Act may be appealed against by the applicant. Decisions rejecting a request for the transfer of the application may be appealed against by the person making the request.







(3)     Decisions refusing a request under





Section 25







(1)     Appeals under section 24 of this Act shall be filed with the Patent Board of Appeal not later than 2 months after the date on which the party concerned was notified of the decision by the Patent Office. The prescribed fee shall be paid within the same time limit. Failure to do so shall cause the appeal to be refused.







(2)     The decisions of the Patent Board of Appeal may not be brought before any higher administrative authority.







(3)     Proceedings to test decisions of the Patent Office which may be appealed against to the Patent Board of Appeal may not be brought before the courts until the decision of the Patent Board of Appeal has been given, cf. however sections 52 and 53 of this Act. Proceedings to test decisions by which the Patent Board of Appeal refuses an application for a patent or revokes a patent shall be brought within 2 months after the date on which the party concerned was notified of the decision.







(4)     The provisions of





Section 26







If an application which is available to the public is finally refused or shelved, notice hereof shall be published.







Section 27







Granted patents shall be entered in a Register of Patents which shall be kept by the Patent Authority.



Part 3
International patent applications








Section 28







(1)     An ‘international patent application’ means an application under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, done at Washington on 19 June 1970.







(2)     An international patent application shall be filed with a patent authority or an international organisation which is competent under the Treaty and the Regulations to receive such application (receiving Office). An international patent application may be filed with the Patent Authority of this country in accordance with rules laid down by the Minister of Industry. The applicant shall the fee prescribed for the application to the Patent Authority.







(3)     The provisions of sections 29 to 38 of this Act shall apply to international patent applications designating Denmark.







Section 29







An international patent application which has been accorded an international filing date by the receiving Office shall have the same effect as a patent application filed in this country on that date. The provision of section 2 (2), 2nd clause, of this Act shall, however, not apply unless the application has been proceeded with under section 31 of this Act.







Section 30







An international patent application shall be considered withdrawn as far as Denmark is concerned in the cases referred to in (ii), of the Treaty.







Section 31







(1)     If the applicant wishes to proceed with an international application with respect to Denmark, he shall within 20 months from the international date of filing or, if priority is claimed, from the priority date pay the prescribed fee to the Patent Authority and file a translation into Danish of the international application to the extent prescribed by the Minister of Industry or, if the application is written in Danish, a copy of the application.







(2)     If a request is made by the applicant to subject an international application to an international preliminary examination, and if within 19 months from the date referred to in subsection 1 hereof within 30 months from the said date.







(3)     If the applicant has paid the prescribed fee within the time limits fixed in 2 hereof, the prescribed translation or copy may be filed within a further period of 2 months provided that a prescribed additional fee is paid prior to expiry of the further period.







(4)     If the applicant fails to fulfil the requirements of this section, the application shall be considered withdrawn as far as Denmark is concerned.







Section 32







If the applicant withdraws a request for an international preliminary examination or an election of Denmark, the international patent application shall be considered withdrawn as far as Denmark is concerned, unless the withdrawal has been effected prior to the expiry of the time limit applicable under section 31 (1), cf.





Section 33







(1)     When an international patent application has been proceeded with under section 31 of this Act, the provisions of sections 34 to 37 of this Act. The examination and further processing of the application shall only be commenced prior to the expiry of the time limits applicable under (2) of this Act, if the applicant so requests.







(2)     The provision of section 12 of this Act shall only be applicable as from the time when the Patent Authority may commence the examination and other processing of the application.







(3)     The provisions of (3) of this Act shall apply even before the application has been proceeded with when the applicant has complied with his obligation under section 31 of this Act to file a translation of the application or, if the application is written in Danish, when the applicant has filed a copy thereof with the Patent Authority.







(4)     For the purposes of section 48, 56 and 60 of this Act, an international patent application shall be deemed to have been made available to the public when it has been made available under





(5)     If the application complies with the requirements relating to form and contents provided for in the Treaty, it shall be accepted in that respect.







Section 34







Patent shall only be granted or refused in respect of an international patent application after expiry of the time limit laid down by the Minister of Industry, unless the applicant has consented to the application being decided upon prior thereto.







Section 35







Without the consent of the applicant, the Patent Authority shall not grant a patent for an international patent application or publish it prior to its publication by the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) or prior to the expiry of 20 months from the international filing date or, if priority is claimed, from the date of priority.







Section 36







(1)     If any part of an international patent application has not been the subject of an international search or an international preliminary examination because the application has been deemed to relate to two or more mutually independent inventions, and the applicant has not paid the additional fee under the Treaty within the prescribed time limit, the Patent Authority shall review the finding to determine whether it was justified. If this is found to be the case, the said part of the application shall be considered withdrawn before the Patent Authority, unless the applicant pays the prescribed fee within 2 months after the date on which the Patent Authority notified him of the result of the review. If the Patent Authority considers that the finding was not justified, it shall proceed with the examination and other processing of the application in its entirety.







(2)     The applicant may appeal against a decision under section 25 (1) to





(3)     If the appeal is dismissed, the time limit for payment of the fee under





Section 37







If any part of an international application has not been the subject of an international preliminary examination because the applicant has restricted the claims at the demand of the International Preliminary Examination Authority, that part of the application shall be considered withdrawn before the Patent Authority, unless the applicant pays the prescribed fee within 2 months after the date on which the Patent Authority invited him to pay with reference to the restriction of the examination carried out.







Section 38







(1)     If a receiving Office has refused to accord an international filing date to an international patent application, or if it has decided that the application or the designation of Denmark shall be considered withdrawn, the Patent Authority shall, at the request of the applicant, review the decision to determine whether it was justified. The same shall apply to any decision from the International Bureau according to which an application shall be considered withdrawn.







(2)     A request for a review under





(3)     If the Patent Authority finds that the decision of the receiving Office or the International Bureau was not justified, the Patent Authority shall examine and process the application under <>







(4)     The provision of section 2 (2), 2nd clause, of this Act shall apply to applications to be examined and processed pursuant to





Part 4
Extent of the protection and term of the patent








Section 39







The extent of the protection conferred by a patent shall be determined by the claims. For the interpretation of the claims the description may serve as a guide.







Section 40







A granted patent may be maintained until 20 years have elapsed from the date of filing of the patent application. A renewal fee shall be paid for the patent in respect of each fee year beginning after the grant of the patent.







Part 5
Payment of renewal fee








Section 41







(1)     The renewal fee shall fall due on the last day of the month in which the fee year begins. The renewal fee in respect of the first two fee years shall, however, only fall due at the same time as the fee in respect of the third fee year. Renewal fees many not be paid earlier than 3 months before the due date.







(2)     For a later application as provided for in section 11 of this Act, the renewal fee in respect of fee years having begun before the date of filing of the later application or beginning within 2 months after that date shall in no case fall due before 2 months have elapsed after the said date. For an international patent application, renewal fees in respect of fee years having begun before the date on which the application was proceeded with under section 31 of this Act or taken up for examination and other processing under section 38 of this Act or beginning within 2 months after that date shall in no case fall due before 2 months have elapsed after the date on which the application was proceeded with or taken up for examination and other processing.







(3)     Any renewal fee may, together with the prescribed additional fee, be paid within 6 months after its due date.







Section 42







(1)     If the inventor is the applicant or the proprietor of the patent, and if it is deemed to involve great difficulties for him to pay the renewal fees, the Patent Authority may grant him a respite for the payment thereof, provided that a request to that effect is submitted not later than on the date on which the renewal fees fall due for the first time. Respites may be granted for up to 3 years at a time, but no longer than until 3 years have elapsed from the grant of the patent. Any request for a prolongation of a respite shall be submitted not later than on the date on which the granted respite expires.







(2)     If a request for a respite or a prolongation of a respite is refused, payment within 2 months thereafter shall be regarded as payment in due time.







(3)     Any renewal fee for the payment of which a respite has been granted according to section 41 (3) of this Act, be paid within 6 months after the date until which the respite has been granted.







Part 6
Licensing, transfer, etc.








Section 43







If the proprietor of the patent has granted another person a right to exploit the invention commercially (licence), the licensee may not transfer that right to others in the absence of an agreement to the contrary.







Section 44







(1)     The transfer of a patent, the grant of a licence, pledging or execution proceedings shall on request be recorded in the Register of Patents.







(2)     If it is proved that a registered licence has terminated, the licence shall be deleted from the Register.







(3)     The provisions of 2 hereof shall also apply to compulsory licences and rights under





(4)     Legal proceedings in respect of a patent may always be brought against the person who is entered in the Register as proprietor of the patent, and any notification from the Patent Authority may be sent to him.







Section 45







(1)     If a patented invention is not worked to a reasonable extent in this country when 3 years have elapsed from the grant of the patent and 4 years have elapsed from the filing of the patent application, any person wishing to work the invention in this country may obtain a compulsory licence to do so, unless there are legitimate reasons for failure to work the invention.







(2)     The Minister of Industry may direct that for the purposes of





Section 46







(1)     The proprietor of a patent for an invention the exploitation of which is dependent on a patent or a registered utility model held by another person may obtain a compulsory licence to exploit the invention protected by the latter patent or the creation protected by the latter utility model registration, if it is deemed to be reasonable in view of the importance of the former invention or for other special reasons.







(2)     The proprietor of the patent for the invention or the registered utility model in respect of which a compulsory licence has been granted pursuant to the provision of





Section 47







When required by important public interests, any person who wishes to exploit an invention commercially for which another person holds a patent may obtain a compulsory licence to do so.







Section 48







(1)     Any person who, in this country, at the time when a patent application was made available to the public, was commercially exploiting the invention for which a patent is applied for, may, if the application results in a patent, obtain a compulsory licence to exploit the invention, if very special circumstances make it desirable, and he had no knowledge and could not reasonably, have obtained any knowledge of the application. Such a right shall also, under similar conditions, be enjoyed by any person who had made substantial preparations for commercial exploitation of the invention in this country.







(2)     Such a compulsory licence may include the time preceding the grant of the patent.







(3)     The Minister of Industry may direct that for the purposes of





Section 49







(1)     A compulsory licence may only be granted to a person who may be presumed to be able to exploit the invention in a reasonable and acceptable way and in accordance with the terms of the licence.







(2)     A compulsory licence shall not prevent the proprietor of the patent from exploiting the invention himself or from granting licences to others. The compulsory licence may only be transferred to others together with the business in which it is exploited or in which the exploitation was intended.







Section 50







The Copenhagen Maritime and Commercial Court shall decide as the court of first instance whether a compulsory licence shall be granted and shall also determine the extent to which the invention may be exploited, fix the compensation and lay down the other terms of the compulsory licence. If circumstances should change considerably, the Court may, at the request of either party, cancel the licence or lay down new terms of the licence.







Part 7
Termination of patent, administrative
re-examination, etc.








Section 51







If any renewal fee is not paid in accordance with the rules laid down in sections 40, 41 and 42 of this Act, the patent shall lapse as from the beginning of the fee year in respect of which the fee has not been paid.







Section 52







(1)     A patent may be revoked by a court decision if:







     (i)     it has been granted notwithstanding that the requirements under <>







     (ii)     it relates to an invention which is not disclosed in a manner sufficiently clear to enable a person skilled in the art to carry out the invention,







     (iii)     its subject-matter extends beyond the contents of the application as filed, or







     (iv)     the protection conferred by the patent has been extended after the Patent Authority has notified the applicant that patent will be granted.







(2)     A patent may, however, not be revoked in its entirety on the ground that the proprietor of the patent was only partially entitled to the patent.







(3)     With the exceptions provided for in





(4)     Proceedings on the ground that the patent has been granted to another person than the one entitled thereto under < Act, section 1>







Section 53







(1)     If a patent has been granted to another person than the one entitled thereto under





(2)     The person who is deprived of the patent shall, if he in good faith is exploiting the invention commercially in this country or has made substantial preparations for such exploitation, be entitled, for a reasonable compensation and on reasonable conditions in other respects, to continue the exploitation already commenced or to implement the planned exploitation retaining its general character. Such a right shall also, under the same conditions, be enjoyed by holders of registered licences.







(3)     Rights under





Section 53a







Proceedings instituted concerning revocation while an opposition under section 21 of this Act or a request for re-examination under





Section 53b







(1)     Any person may file a written request with the Patent Authority to the effect that a patent granted by the Patent Authority or granted with effect for Denmark under section 75 of this Act be re-examined. The request shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee. A request may not be filed during the period allowed for opposition, or as long as an opposition has not been finally decided upon.







(2)     If a request for re-examination has been filed, the proprietor of the patent shall be notified to that effect and shall be given an opportunity to file his observations. The Patent Authority shall advertise the filing of a request for reexamination.







(3)     The Patent Authority may examine a request for reexamination, even if the Patent has terminated or will terminate pursuant to sections 51, 54 or 96 of this Act. The Patent Authority may also examine the request, even if the request is withdrawn or the person having requested the re-examination dies or loses his capacity to enter into legal transactions.







Section 53c







(1)     A request for re-examination by persons other than the proprietor of the patent shall only be filed on the grounds for revocation referred to in





(2)     The Patent Authority may revoke the patent or maintain the patent, amended or unamended. The Patent Authority shall examine whether the request can be met and, if so, whether the grounds referred to in





Section 53d







(1)     If a request from persons other than the proprietor of the patent cannot be met, the request shall be refused, and the patent shall be maintained unamended.







(2)     If the request is met, but the patent cannot be maintained as amended, the Patent Authority shall revoke the patent. If the patent may be maintained as amended, the patent shall be amended accordingly, if the proprietor of the patent approves the amended wording of the Patent Authority. If the proprietor of the patent does not approve the amended working, the patent shall be revoked.







(3)     When a final decision has been made to maintain a patent as amended, the proprietor of the patent shall pay the prescribed fee for publication of new patent specifications within the prescribed time limit. Failure to pay the fee in time shall cause the patent to be revoked.







(4)     The Patent Authority shall advertise its decision on an administrative re-examination.







Section 53e







(1)     The proprietor of the patent himself may request that his patent be restricted by amending the description, claims or drawings on the conditions referred to in section 53b (1) of this Act.







(2)     The Patent Authority shall then examine whether the grounds referred to in section 53d (3) and (4) of this Act shall apply mutatis mutandis, however, the patent shall be declared to have ceased to have effect, if the fee for publication of new patent specifications is not paid in time.







(3)     If, on the other hand, the patent cannot be maintained in the desired restricted form, such request for restriction shall be refused.







Section 53f







If a patent is amended under 53e of this Act, copies of the new patent specifications with the amended description, drawings and claims shall be available from the Patent Authority as from the date when this is advertised under section 53d (4) of this Act.







Section 54







(1)     If the proprietor of a patent surrenders the patent in writing to the Patent Authority, the Patent Authority shall declare the patent to have ceased to have effect.







(2)     If proceedings have been instituted for the transfer of patent, the patent shall not be declared to have ceased to have effect, until a final decision has been given in the proceedings.







Section 55







When a patent has lapsed or has been declared to have ceased to have effect or has been revoked or transferred to another person by a final court decision, the Patent Authority shall publish a notice to that effect.







Section 55a







If a patent is revoked wholly or partially, the patent shall, to the extent that it has been revoked, be considered not to have had the effects referred to in <>







Part 8
Obligation to give information about patents








Section 56







(1)     An applicant for a patent who invokes his patent application against another person, before the files of the application have become available to the public, shall be under an obligation on request to consent to the said person getting access to inspect the files of the application. If the application comprises a deposited culture of a micro-organism as referred to in section 8a of this Act, the said person shall also have a right to obtain a sample of the culture. The provisions of (7) and





(2)     Any person who, by direct communication to another person or in advertisements or by inscription on goods or their packaging or in any other way, indicates that a patent has been applied for or granted, without indicating at the same time the number of the application or the patent, shall be under an obligation to give such information to any person requesting it without undue delay. If it is not explicitly indicated that a patent has been applied for or granted, but circumstances are such as to create that impression, information as to whether a patent has been applied for or granted shall be given on request without undue delay.







Part 9
Liability to punishment, liability for damages, etc.








Section 57







(1)     If any person infringes the exclusive right conferred by a patent (patent infringement), and the infringement is committed intentionally, he shall be punished by a fine. Under aggravating circumstances, including in particular if by the infringement an appreciable and clearly wrongful gain is intended, the punishment may be increased to simple detention or imprisonment in up to 1 year.







(2)     If the infringement has been committed by a public limited liability company, a private limited liability company, a cooperative society or the like, the enterprise as such may be liable to a fine. If the infringement has been committed by the State, a local authority or a joint local government operation, cf. section 60 in the Danish Local Government Act, the State, local authority or joint local government operation as such may be liable to a fine.







(3)     Proceedings shall be brought by the injured party in case of infringement. However, proceedings shall be brought at the request of the injured party in case of infringements under
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