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Data Protection Act 1984
Copyright, Designs and Patents
Act 1988
CHAPTER 48
Copyright, Designs and Patents
Act 1988
1988 CHAPTER 48
An Act to restate the law of copyright, with amendments; to make fresh provision as to the rights of performers and others in performances; to confer a design right in original designs; to amend the Registered Designs Act 1949; to make provision with respect to patent agents and trade mark agents; to confer patents and designs jurisdiction on certain county courts; to amend the law of patents; to make provision with respect to devices designed to circumvent copy-protection of works in electronic form; to make fresh provision penalising the fraudulent reception of transmissions; to make the fraudulent application or use of a trade mark an offence; to make provision for the benefit of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London; to enable financial assistance to be given to certain international bodies; and for connected purposes.
[15th November 1988]
BE IT ENACTED by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—
Part I
Copyright
Chapter I
Subsistence, ownership and duration of copyright
Introductory
Copyright and copyright works.
1.—
(1)     Copyright is a property right which subsists in accordance with this Part in the following descriptions of work—
(a)     original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works,
(b)     sound recordings, films, broadcasts or cable programmes, and
(c)     the typographical arrangement of published editions.
(2)     In this Part “copyright work” means a work of any of those descriptions in which copyright subsists.
(3)     Copyright does not subsist in a work unless the requirements of this Part with respect to qualification for copyright protection are met (see section 153 and the provisions referred to there).
Rights subsisting in copyright works.
2.—
(1)     The owner of the copyright in a work of any description has the exclusive right to do the acts specified in Chapter II as the acts restricted by the copyright in a work of that description.
(2)     In relation to certain descriptions of copyright work the following rights conferred by Chapter IV (moral rights) subsist in favour of the author, director or commissioner of the work, whether or not he is the owner of the copyright—
(a)     section 77 (right to be identified as author or director),
(b)     section 80 (right to object to derogatory treatment of work), and
(c)     section 85 (right to privacy of certain photographs and films).
Descriptions of work and related provisions
Literary, dramatic and musical works.
3.—
(1)     In this Part—
“literary work” means any work, other than a dramatic or musical work, which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly includes—
(a)     a table or compilation, and
(b)     a computer program;
“dramatic work” includes a work of dance or mime; and
“musical work” means a work consisting of music, exclusive of any words or action intended to be sung, spoken or performed with the music.
(2)     Copyright does not subsist in a literary, dramatic or musical work unless and until it is recorded, in writing or otherwise; and references in this Part to the time at which such a work is made are to the time at which it is so recorded.
(3)     It is immaterial for the purposes of subsection (2) whether the work is recorded by or with the permission of the author; and where it is not recorded by the author, nothing in that subsection affects the question whether copyright subsists in the record as distinct from the work recorded.
Artistic works.
4.—
(1)     In this Part “artistic work” means—
(a)     a graphic work, photograph, sculpture or collage, irrespective of artistic quality,
(b)     a work of architecture being a building or a model for a building, or
(c)     a work of artistic craftsmanship.
(2)     In this Part—
“building” includes any fixed structure, and a part of a building or fixed structure;
“graphic work” includes—
(a)     any painting, drawing, diagram, map, chart or plan, and
(b)     any engraving, etching, lithograph, woodcut or similar work;
“photograph” means a recording of light or other radiation on any medium on which an image is produced or from which an image may by any means be produced, and which is not part of a film;
“sculpture” includes a cast or model made for purposes of sculpture.
Sound recordings and films.
5.—
(1)     In this Part—
“sound recording” means—
(a)     a recording of sounds, from which the sounds may be reproduced, or
(b)     a recording of the whole or any part of a literary, dramatic or musical work, from which sounds reproducing the work or part may be produced,
regardless of the medium on which the recording is made or the method by which the sounds are reproduced or produced; and
“film” means a recording on any medium from which a moving image may by any means be produced.
(2)     Copyright does not subsist in a sound recording or film which is, or to the extent that it is, a copy taken from a previous sound recording or film.
Broadcasts.
6.—
(1)     In this Part a “broadcast” means a transmission by wireless telegraphy of visual images, sounds or other information which—
(a)     is capable of being lawfully received by members of the public, or
(b)     is transmitted for presentation to members of the public;
and references to broadcasting shall be construed accordingly.
(2)     An encrypted transmission shall be regarded as capable of being lawfully received by members of the public only if decoding equipment has been made available to members of the public by or with the authority of the person making the transmission or the person providing the contents of the transmission.
(3)     References in this Part to the person making a broadcast, broadcasting a work, or including a work in a broadcast are—
(a)     to the person transmitting the programme, if he has responsibility to any extent for its contents, and
(b)     to any person providing the programme who makes with the person transmitting it the arrangements necessary for its transmission;
and references in this Part to a programme, in the context of broadcasting, are to any item included in a broadcast.
(4)     For the purposes of this Part the place from which a broadcast is made is, in the case of a satellite transmission, the place from which the signals carrying the broadcast are transmitted to the satellite.
(5)     References in this Part to the reception of a broadcast include reception of a broadcast relayed by means of a telecommunications system.
(6)     Copyright does not subsist in a broadcast which infringes, or to the extent that it infringes, the copyright in another broadcast or in a cable programme.
Cable programmes.
7.—
(1)     In this Part—
“cable programme” means any item included in a cable programme service; and
“cable programme service” means a service which consists wholly or mainly in sending visual images, sounds or other information by means of a telecommunications system, otherwise than by wireless telegraphy, for reception—
(a)     at two or more places (whether for simultaneous reception or at different times in response to requests by different users), or
(b)     for presentation to members of the public,
and which is not, or so far as it is not, excepted by or under the following provisions of this section.
(2)     The following are excepted from the definition of “cable programme service”—
(a)     a service or part of a service of which it is an essential feature that while visual images, sounds or other information are being conveyed by the person providing the service there will or may be sent from each place of reception, by means of the same system or (as the case may be) the same part of it, information (other than signals sent for the operation or control of the service) for reception by the person providing the service or other persons receiving it;
(b)     a service run for the purposes of a business where—
     (i)     no person except the person carrying on the business is concerned in the control of the apparatus comprised in the system,
     (ii)     the visual images, sounds or other information are conveyed by the system solely for purposes internal to the running of the business and not by way of rendering a service or providing amenities for others, and
     (iii)     the system is not connected to any other telecommunications system;
(c)     a service run by a single individual where—
     (i)     all the apparatus comprised in the system is under his control,
     (ii)     the visual images, sounds or other information conveyed by the system are conveyed solely for domestic purposes of his, and
     (iii)     the system is not connected to any other telecommunications system;
(d)     services where—
     (i)     all the apparatus comprised in the system is situated in, or connects, premises which are in single occupation, and
     (ii)     the system is not connected to any other telecommunications system,
other than services operated as part of the amenities provided for residents or inmates of premises run as a business;
(e)     services which are, or to the extent that they are, run for persons providing broadcasting or cable programme services or providing programmes for such services.
(3)     The Secretary of State may by order amend subsection (2) so as to add or remove exceptions, subject to such transitional provision as appears to him to be appropriate.
(4)     An order shall be made by statutory instrument; and no order shall be made unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by resolution of each House of Parliament.
(5)     References in this Part to the inclusion of a cable programme or work in a cable programme service are to its transmission as part of the service; and references to the person including it are to the person providing the service.
(6)     Copyright does not subsist in a cable programme—
(a)     if it is included in a cable programme service by reception and immediate re-transmission of a broadcast, or
(b)     if it infringes, or to the extent that it infringes, the copyright in another cable programme or in a broadcast.
Published editions.
8.—
(1)     In this Part “published edition”, in the context of copyright in the typographical arrangement of a published edition, means a published edition of the whole or any part of one or more literary, dramatic or musical works.
(2)     Copyright does not subsist in the typographical arrangement of a published edition if, or to the extent that, it reproduces the typographical arrangement of a previous edition.
Authorship and ownership of copyright
Authorship of work.
9.—
(1)     In this Part “author”, in relation to a work, means the person who creates it.
(2)     That person shall be taken to be—
(a)     in the case of a sound recording or film, the person by whom the arrangements necessary for the making of the recording or film are undertaken;
(b)     in the case of a broadcast, the person making the broadcast (see section 6(3)) or, in the case of a broadcast which relays another broadcast by reception and immediate re-transmission, the person making that other broadcast;
(c)     in the case of a cable programme, the person providing the cable programme service in which the programme is included;
(d)     in the case of the typographical arrangement of a published edition, the publisher.
(3)     In the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work which is computer-generated, the author shall be taken to be the person by whom the arrangements necessary for the creation of the work are undertaken.
(4)     For the purposes of this Part a work is of “unknown authorship” if the identity of the author is unknown or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, if the identity of none of the authors is known.
(5)     For the purposes of this Part the identity of an author shall be regarded as unknown if it is not possible for a person to ascertain his identity by reasonable inquiry; but if his identity is once known it shall not subsequently be regarded as unknown.
Works of joint authorship.
10.—
(1)     In this Part a “work of joint authorship” means a work produced by the collaboration of two or more authors in which the contribution of each author is not distinct from that of the other author or authors.
(2)     A broadcast shall be treated as a work of joint authorship in any case where more than one person is to be taken as making the broadcast (see section 6(3)).
(3)     References in this Part to the author of a work shall, except as otherwise provided, be construed in relation to a work of joint authorship as references to all the authors of the work.
First ownership of copyright.
11.—
(1)     The author of a work is the first owner of any copyright in it, subject to the following provisions.
(2)     Where a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work is made by an employee in the course of his employment, his employer is the first owner of any copyright in the work subject to any agreement to the contrary.
(3)     This section does not apply to Crown copyright or Parliamentary copyright (see sections 163 and 165) or to copyright which subsists by virtue of section 168 (copyright of certain international organisations).
Duration of copyright
Duration of copyright in literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works.
12.—
(1)     Copyright in a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the author dies, subject to the following provisions of this section.
(2)     If the work is of unknown authorship, copyright expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it is first made available to the public; and subsection (1) does not apply if the identity of the author becomes known after the end of that period.
For this purpose making available to the public includes—
(a)     in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work—
     (i)     performance in public, or
     (ii)     being broadcast or included in a cable programme service;
(b)     in the case of an artistic work—
     (i)     exhibition in public,
     (ii)     a film including the work being shown in public, or
     (iii)     being included in a broadcast or cable programme service;
but in determining generally for the purposes of this subsection whether a work has been made available to the public no account shall be taken of any unauthorised act.
(3)     If the work is computer-generated neither of the above provisions applies and copyright expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.
(4)     In relation to a work of joint authorship—
(a)     the reference in subsection (1) to the death of the author shall be construed—
     (i)     if the identity of all the authors is known, as a reference to the death of the last of them to die, and
     (ii)     if the identity of one or more of the authors is known and the identity of one or more others is not, as a reference to the death of the last of the authors whose identity is known; and
(b)     the reference in subsection (2) to the identity of the author becoming known shall be construed as a reference to the identity of any of the authors becoming known.
(5)     This section does not apply to Crown copyright or Parliamentary copyright (see sections 163 to 166) or to copyright which subsists by virtue of section 168 (copyright of certain international organisations).
Duration of copyright in sound recordings and films.
13.—
(1)     Copyright in a sound recording or film expires—
(a)     at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it is made, or
(b)     if it is released before the end of that period, 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it is released.
(2)     A sound recording or film is “released” when—
(a)     it is first published, broadcast or included in a cable programme service, or
(b)     in the case of a film or film sound-track, the film is first shown in public;
but in determining whether a work has been released no account shall be taken of any unauthorised act.
Duration of copyright in broadcasts and cable programmes.
14.—
(1)     Copyright in a broadcast or cable programme expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast was made or the programme was included in a cable programme service.
(2)     Copyright in a repeat broadcast or cable programme expires at the same time as the copyright in the original broadcast or cable programme; and accordingly no copyright arises in respect of a repeat broadcast or cable programme which is broadcast or included in a cable programme service after the expiry of the copyright in the original broadcast or cable programme.
(3)     A repeat broadcast or cable programme means one which is a repeat either of a broadcast previously made or of a cable programme previously included in a cable programme service.
Duration of copyright in typographical arrangement of published editions.
15. Copyright in the typographical arrangement of a published edition expires at the end of the period of 25 years from the end of the calendar year in which the edition was first published.
Chapter II
Rights of Copyright Owner
The acts restricted by copyright
The acts restricted by copyright in a work.
16.—
(1)     The owner of the copyright in a work has, in accordance with the following provisions of this Chapter, the exclusive right to do the following acts in the United Kingdom—
(a)     to copy the work (see section 17);
(b)     to issue copies of the work to the public (see section 18);
(c)     to perform, show or play the work in public (see section 19);
(d)     to broadcast the work or include it in a cable programme service (see section 20);
(e)     to make an adaptation of the work or do any of the above in relation to an adaptation (see section 21);
and those acts are referred to in this Part as the “acts restricted by the copyright”.
(2)     Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who without the licence of the copyright owner does, or authorises another to do, any of the acts restricted by the copyright.
(3)     References in this Part to the doing of an act restricted by the copyright in a work are to the doing of it—
(a)     in relation to the work as a whole or any substantial part of it, and
(b)     either directly or indirectly;
and it is immaterial whether any intervening acts themselves infringe copyright.
(4)     This Chapter has effect subject to—
(a)     the provisions of Chapter III (acts permitted in relation to copyright works), and
(b)     the provisions of Chapter VII (provisions with respect to copyright licensing).
Infringement of copyright by copying.
17.—
(1)     The copying of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in every description of copyright work; and references in this Part to copying and copies shall be construed as follows.
(2)     Copying in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work means reproducing the work in any material form.
This includes storing the work in any medium by electronic means.
(3)     In relation to an artistic work copying includes the making of a copy in three dimensions of a two-dimensional work and the making of a copy in two dimensions of a three-dimensional work.
(4)     Copying in relation to a film, television broadcast or cable programme includes making a photograph of the whole or any substantial part of any image forming part of the film, broadcast or cable programme.
(5)     Copying in relation to the typographical arrangement of a published edition means making a facsimile copy of the arrangement.
(6)     Copying in relation to any description of work includes the making of copies which are transient or are incidental to some other use of the work.
Infringement by issue of copies to the public.
18.—
(1)     The issue to the public of copies of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in every description of copyright work.
(2)     References in this Part to the issue to the public of copies of a work are to the act of putting into circulation copies not previously put into circulation, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, and not to—
(a)     any subsequent distribution, sale, hiring or loan of those copies, or
(b)     any subsequent importation of those copies into the United Kingdom;
except that in relation to sound recordings, films and computer programs the restricted act of issuing copies to the public includes any rental of copies to the public.
Infringement by performance, showing or playing of work in public.
19.—
(1)     The performance of the work in public is an act restricted by the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work.
(2)     In this Part “performance”, in relation to a work—
(a)     includes delivery in the case of lectures, addresses, speeches and sermons, and
(b)     in general, includes any mode of visual or acoustic presentation, including presentation by means of a sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme of the work.
(3)     The playing or showing of the work in public is an act restricted by the copyright in a sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.
(4)     Where copyright in a work is infringed by its being performed, played or shown in public by means of apparatus for receiving visual images or sounds conveyed by electronic means, the person by whom the visual images or sounds are sent, and in the case of a performance the performers, shall not be regarded as responsible for the infringement.
Infringement by broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service.
20. The broadcasting of the work or its inclusion in a cable programme service is an act restricted by the copyright in—
(a)     a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work,
(b)     a sound recording or film, or
(c)     a broadcast or cable programme.
Infringement by making adaptation or act done in relation to adaptation.
21.—
(1)     The making of an adaptation of the work is an act restricted by the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work.
For this purpose an adaptation is made when it is recorded, in writing or otherwise.
(2)     The doing of any of the acts specified in sections 17 to 20, or subsection (1) above, in relation to an adaptation of the work is also an act restricted by the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work.
For this purpose it is immaterial whether the adaptation has been recorded, in writing or otherwise, at the time the act is done.
(3)     In this Part “adaptation”—
(a)     in relation to a literary or dramatic work, means—
     (i)     a translation of the work;
     (ii)     a version of a dramatic work in which it is converted into a non-dramatic work or, as the case may be, of a non-dramatic work in which it is converted into a dramatic work;
     (iii)     a version of the work in which the story or action is conveyed wholly or mainly by means of pictures in a form suitable for reproduction in a book, or in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical;
(b)     in relation to a musical work, means an arrangement or transcription of the work.
(4)     In relation to a computer program a “translation” includes a version of the program in which it is converted into or out of a computer language or code or into a different computer language or code, otherwise than incidentally in the course of running the program.
(5)     No inference shall be drawn from this section as to what does or does not amount to copying a work.
Secondary infringement of copyright
Secondary infringement: importing infringing copy.
22. The copyright in a work is infringed by a person who, without the licence of the copyright owner, imports into the United Kingdom, otherwise than for his private and domestic use, an article which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe is, an infringing copy of the work.
Secondary infringement: possessing or dealing with infringing copy.
23. The copyright in a work is infringed by a person who, without the licence of the copyright owner—
(a)     possesses in the course of a business,
(b)     sells or lets for hire, or offers or exposes for sale or hire,
(c)     in the course of a business exhibits in public or distributes, or
(d)     distributes otherwise than in the course of a business to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright,
an article which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe is, an infringing copy of the work.
Secondary infringement: providing means for making infringing copies.
24.—
(1)     Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who, without the licence of the copyright owner—
(a)     makes,
(b)     imports into the United Kingdom,
(c)     possesses in the course of a business, or
(d)     sells or lets for hire, or offers or exposes for sale or hire,
an article specifically designed or adapted for making copies of that work, knowing or having reason to believe that it is to be used to make infringing copies.
(2)     Copyright in a work is infringed by a person who without the licence of the copyright owner transmits the work by means of a telecommunications system (otherwise than by broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service), knowing or having reason to believe that infringing copies of the work will be made by means of the reception of the transmission in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.
Secondary infringement: permitting use of premises for infringing performance.
25.—
(1)     Where the copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work is infringed by a performance at a place of public entertainment, any person who gave permission for that place to be used for the performance is also liable for the infringement unless when he gave permission he believed on reasonable grounds that the performance would not infringe copyright.
(2)     In this section “place of public entertainment” includes premises which are occupied mainly for other purposes but are from time to time made available for hire for the purposes of public entertainment.
Secondary infringement: provision of apparatus for infringing performance, &c.
26.—
(1)     Where copyright in a work is infringed by a public performance of the work, or by the playing or showing of the work in public, by means of apparatus for—
(a)     playing sound recordings,
(b)     showing films, or
(c)     receiving visual images or sounds conveyed by electronic means,
the following persons are also liable for the infringement.
(2)     A person who supplied the apparatus, or any substantial part of it, is liable for the infringement if when he supplied the apparatus or part—
(a)     he knew or had reason to believe that the apparatus was likely to be so used as to infringe copyright, or
(b)     in the case of apparatus whose normal use involves a public performance, playing or showing, he did not believe on reasonable grounds that it would not be so used as to infringe copyright.
(3)     An occupier of premises who gave permission for the apparatus to be brought onto the premises is liable for the infringement if when he gave permission he knew or had reason to believe that the apparatus was likely to be so used as to infringe copyright.
(4)     A person who supplied a copy of a sound recording or film used to infringe copyright is liable for the infringement if when he supplied it he knew or had reason to believe that what he supplied, or a copy made directly or indirectly from it, was likely to be so used as to infringe copyright.
Infringing copies
Meaning of “infringing copy.”
27.—
(1)     In this Part “infringing copy”, in relation to a copyright work, shall be construed in accordance with this section.
(2)     An article is an infringing copy if its making constituted an infringement of the copyright in the work in question.
(3)     An article is also an infringing copy if—
(a)     it has been or is proposed to be imported into the United Kingdom, and
(b)     its making in the United Kingdom would have constituted an infringement of the copyright in the work in question, or a breach of an exclusive licence agreement relating to that work.
(4)     Where in any proceedings the question arises whether an article is an infringing copy and it is shown—
(a)     that the article is a copy of the work, and
(b)     that copyright subsists in the work or has subsisted at any time,
it shall be presumed until the contrary is proved that the article was made at a time when copyright subsisted in the work.
1972 c. 68.
(5)     Nothing in subsection (3) shall be construed as applying to an article which may lawfully be imported into the United Kingdom by virtue of any enforceable Community right within the meaning of section 2(1) of the European Communities Act 1972.
(6)     In this Part “infringing copy” includes a copy falling to be treated as an infringing copy by virtue of any of the following provisions—
section 32(5) (copies made for purposes of instruction or examination),
section 35(3) (recordings made by educational establishments for educational purposes),
section 36(5) (reprographic copying by educational establishments for purposes of instruction),
section 37(3)(b) (copies made by librarian or archivist in reliance on false declaration),
section 56(2) (further copies, adaptations, &c. of work in electronic form retained on transfer of principal copy),
section 63(2) (copies made for purpose of advertising artistic work for sale),
section 68(4) (copies made for purpose of broadcast or cable programme), or
any provision of an order under section 141 (statutory licence for certain reprographic copying by educational establishments).
Chapter III
Acts Permitted in relation to Copyright Works
Introductory
Introductory provisions.
28.—
(1)     The provisions of this Chapter specify acts which may be done in relation to copyright works notwithstanding the subsistence of copyright; they relate only to the question of infringement of copyright and do not affect any other right or obligation restricting the doing of any of the specified acts.
(2)     Where it is provided by this Chapter that an act does not infringe copyright, or may be done without infringing copyright, and no particular description of copyright work is mentioned, the act in question does not infringe the copyright in a work of any description.
(3)     No inference shall be drawn from the description of any act which may by virtue of this Chapter be done without infringing copyright as to the scope of the acts restricted by the copyright in any description of work.
(4)     The provisions of this Chapter are to be construed independently of each other, so that the fact that an act does not fall within one provision does not mean that it is not covered by another provision.
General
Research and private study.
29.—
(1)     Fair dealing with a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work for the purposes of research or private study does not infringe any copyright in the work or, in the case of a published edition, in the typographical arrangement.
(2)     Fair dealing with the typographical arrangement of a published edition for the purposes mentioned in subsection (1) does not infringe any copyright in the arrangement.
(3)     Copying by a person other than the researcher or student himself is not fair dealing if—
(a)     in the case of a librarian, or a person acting on behalf of a librarian, he does anything which regulations undersection 40 would not permit to be done under section 38 or 39 (articles or parts of published works: restriction on multiple copies of same material), or
(b)     in any other case, the person doing the copying knows or has reason to believe that it will result in copies of substantially the same material being provided to more than one person at substantially the same time and for substantially the same purpose.
Criticism, review and news reporting.
30.—
(1)     Fair dealing with a work for the purpose of criticism or review, of that or another work or of a performance of a work, does not infringe any copyright in the work provided that it is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgement.
(2)     Fair dealing with a work (other than a photograph) for the purpose of reporting current events does not infringe any copyright in the work provided that (subject to subsection (3)) it is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgement.
(3)     No acknowledgement is required in connection with the reporting of current events by means of a sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.
Incidental inclusion of copyright material.
31.—
(1)     Copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.
(2)     Nor is the copyright infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the playing, showing, broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of subsection (1), not an infringement of the copyright.
(3)     A musical work, words spoken or sung with music, or so much of a sound recording, broadcast or cable programme as includes a musical work or such words, shall not be regarded as incidentally included in another work if it is deliberately included.
Education
Things done for purposes of instruction or examination.
32.—
(1)     Copyright in a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work is not infringed by its being copied in the course of instruction or of preparation for instruction, provided the copying—
(a)     is done by a person giving or receiving instruction, and
(b)     is not by means of a reprographic process.
(2)     Copyright in a sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme is not infringed by its being copied by making a film or film sound-track in the course of instruction, or of preparation for instruction, in the making of films or film sound-tracks, provided the copying is done by a person giving or receiving instruction.
(3)     Copyright is not infringed by anything done for the purposes of an examination by way of setting the questions, communicating the questions to the candidates or answering the questions.
(4)     Subsection (3) does not extend to the making of a reprographic copy of a musical work for use by an examination candidate in performing the work.
(5)     Where a copy which would otherwise be an infringing copy is made in accordance with this section but is subsequently dealt with, it shall be treated as an infringing copy for the purpose of that dealing, and if that dealing infringes copyright for all subsequent purposes.
For this purpose “dealt with” means sold or let for hire or offered or exposed for sale or hire.
Anthologies for educational use.
33.—
(1)     The inclusion of a short passage from a published literary or dramatic work in a collection which—
(a)     is intended for use in educational establishments and is so described in its title, and in any advertisements issued by or on behalf of the publisher, and
(b)     consists mainly of material in which no copyright subsists,
does not infringe the copyright in the work if the work itself is not intended for use in such establishments and the inclusion is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgement.
(2)     Subsection (1) does not authorise the inclusion of more than two excerpts from copyright works by the same author in collections published by the same publisher over any period of five years.
(3)     In relation to any given passage the reference in subsection (2) to excerpts from works by the same author—
(a)     shall be taken to include excerpts from works by him in collaboration with another, and
(b)     if the passage in question is from such a work, shall be taken to include excerpts from works by any of the authors, whether alone or in collaboration with another.
(4)     References in this section to the use of a work in an educational establishment are to any use for the educational purposes of such an establishment.
Performing, playing or showing work in course of activities of educational establishment.
34.—
(1)     The performance of a literary, dramatic or musical work before an audience consisting of teachers and pupils at an educational establishment and other persons directly connected with the activities of the establishment—
(a)     by a teacher or pupil in the course of the activities of the establishment, or
(b)     at the establishment by any person for the purposes of instruction,
is not a public performance for the purposes of infringement of copyright.
(2)     The playing or showing of a sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme before such an audience at an educational establishment for the purposes of instruction is not a playing or showing of the work in public for the purposes of infringement of copyright.
(3)     A person is not for this purpose directly connected with the activities of the educational establishment simply because he is the parent of a pupil at the establishment.
Recording by educational establishments of broadcasts and cable programmes.
35.—
(1)     A recording of a broadcast or cable programme, or a copy of such a recording, may be made by or on behalf of an educational establishment for the educational purposes of that establishment without thereby infringing the copyright in the broadcast or cable programme, or in any work included in it.
(2)     This section does not apply if or to the extent that there is a licensing scheme certified for the purposes of this section under section 143 providing for the grant of licences.
(3)     Where a copy which would otherwise be an infringing copy is made in accordance with this section but is subsequently dealt with, it shall be treated as an infringing copy for the purposes of that dealing, and if that dealing infringes copyright for all subsequent purposes.
For this purpose “dealt with” means sold or let for hire or offered or exposed for sale or hire.
Reprographic copying by educational establishments of passages from published works.
36.—
(1)     Reprographic copies of passages from published literary, dramatic or musical works may, to the extent permitted by this section, be made by or on behalf of an educational establishment for the purposes of instruction without infringing any copyright in the work, or in the typographical arrangement.
(2)     Not more than one per cent. of any work may be copied by or on behalf of an establishment by virtue of this section in any quarter, that is, in any period 1st January to 31st March, 1st April to 30th June, 1st July to 30th September or 1st October to 31st December.
(3)     Copying is not authorised by this section if, or to the extent that, licences are available authorising the copying in question and the person making the copies knew or ought to have been aware of that fact.
(4)     The terms of a licence granted to an educational establishment authorising the reprographic copying for the purposes of instruction of passages from published literary, dramatic or musical works are of no effect so far as they purport to restrict the proportion of a work which may be copied (whether on payment or free of charge) to less than that which would be permitted under this section.
(5)     Where a copy which would otherwise be an infringing copy is made in accordance with this section but is subsequently dealt with, it shall be treated as an infringing copy for the purposes of that dealing, and if that dealing infringes copyright for all subsequent purposes.
For this purpose “dealt with” means sold or let for hire or offered or exposed for sale or hire.
Libraries and archives
Libraries and archives: introductory.
37.—
(1)     In sections 38 to 43 (copying by librarians and archivists)—
(a)     references in any provision to a prescribed library or archive are to a library or archive of a description prescribed for the purposes of that provision by regulations made by the Secretary of State; and
(b)     references in any provision to the prescribed conditions are to the conditions so prescribed.
(2)     The regulations may provide that, where a librarian or archivist is required to be satisfied as to any matter before making or supplying a copy of a work—
(a)     he may rely on a signed declaration as to that matter by the person requesting the copy, unless he is aware that it is false in a material particular, and
(b)     in such cases as may be prescribed, he shall not make or supply a copy in the absence of a signed declaration in such form as may be prescribed.
(3)     Where a person requesting a copy makes a declaration which is false in a material particular and is supplied with a copy which would have been an infringing copy if made by him—
(a)     he is liable for infringement of copyright as if he had made the copy himself, and
(b)     the copy shall be treated as an infringing copy.
(4)     The regulations may make different provision for different descriptions of libraries or archives and for different purposes.
(5)     Regulations shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.
(6)     References in this section, and in sections 38 to 43, to the librarian or archivist include a person acting on his behalf.
Copying by librarians: articles in periodicals.
38.—
(1)     The librarian of a prescribed library may, if the prescribed conditions are complied with, make and supply a copy of an article in a periodical without infringing any copyright in the text, in any illustrations accompanying the text or in the typographical arrangement.
(2)     The prescribed conditions shall include the following—
(a)     that copies are supplied only to persons satisfying the librarian that they require them for purposes of research or private study, and will not use them for any other purpose;
(b)     that no person is furnished with more than one copy of the same article or with copies of more than one article contained in the same issue of a periodical; and
(c)     that persons to whom copies are supplied are required to pay for them a sum not less than the cost (including a contribution to the general expenses of the library) attributable to their production.
Copying by librarians: part of published works.
39.—
(1)     The librarian of a prescribed library may, if the prescribed conditions are complied with, make and supply from a published edition a copy of part of a literary, dramatic or musical work (other than an article in a periodical) without infringing any copyright in the work, in any illustrations accompanying the work or in the typographical arrangement.
(2)     The prescribed conditions shall include the following—
(a)     that copies are supplied only to persons satisfying the librarian that they require them for purposes of research or private study, and will not use them for any other purpose;
(b)     that no person is furnished with more than one copy of the same material or with a copy of more than a reasonable proportion of any work; and
(c)     that persons to whom copies are supplied are required to pay for them a sum not less than the cost (including a contribution to the general expenses of the library) attributable to their production.
Restriction on production of multiple copies of the same material.
40.—
(1)     Regulations for the purposes of sections 38 and 39 (copying by librarian of article or part of published work) shall contain provision to the effect that a copy shall be supplied only to a person satisfying the librarian that his requirement is not related to any similar requirement of another person.
(2)     The regulations may provide—
(a)     that requirements shall be regarded as similar if the requirements are for copies of substantially the same material at substantially the same time and for substantially the same purpose; and
(b)     that requirements of persons shall be regarded as related if those persons receive instruction to which the material is relevant at the same time and place.
Copying by librarians: supply of copies to other libraries.
41.—
(1)     The librarian of a prescribed library may, if the prescribed conditions are complied with, make and supply to another prescribed library a copy of—
(a)     an article in a periodical, or
(b)     the whole or part of a published edition of a literary, dramatic or musical work,
without infringing any copyright in the text of the article or, as the case may be, in the work, in any illustrations accompanying it or in the typographical arrangement.
(2)     Subsection (1)(b) does not apply if at the time the copy is made the librarian making it knows, or could by reasonable inquiry ascertain, the name and address of a person entitled to authorise the making of the copy.
Copying by librarians or archivists: replacement copies of works.
42.—
(1)     The librarian or archivist of a prescribed library or archive may, if the prescribed conditions are complied with, make a copy from any item in the permanent collection of the library or archive—
(a)     in order to preserve or replace that item by placing the copy in its permanent collection in addition to or in place of it, or
(b)     in order to replace in the permanent collection of another prescribed library or archive an item which has been lost, destroyed or damaged,
without infringing the copyright in any literary, dramatic or musical work, in any illustrations accompanying such a work or, in the case of a published edition, in the typographical arrangement.
(2)     The prescribed conditions shall include provision for restricting the making of copies to cases where it is not reasonably practicable to purchase a copy of the item in question to fulfil that purpose.
Copying by librarians or archivists: certain unpublished works.
43.—
(1)     The librarian or archivist of a prescribed library or archive may, if the prescribed conditions are complied with, make and supply a copy of the whole or part of a literary, dramatic or musical work from a document in the library or archive without infringing any copyright in the work or any illustrations accompanying it.
(2)     This section does not apply if—
(a)     the work had been published before the document was deposited in the library or archive, or
(b)     the copyright owner has prohibited copying of the work,
and at the time the copy is made the librarian or archivist making it is, or ought to be, aware of that fact.
(3)     The prescribed conditions shall include the following—
(a)     that copies are supplied only to persons satisfying the librarian or archivist that they require them for purposes of research or private study and will not use them for any other purpose;
(b)     that no person is furnished with more than one copy of the same material; and
(c)     that persons to whom copies are supplied are required to pay for them a sum not less than the cost (including a contribution to the general expenses of the library or archive) attributable to their production.
Copy of work required to be made as condition of export.
44. If an article of cultural or historical importance or interest cannot lawfully be exported from the United Kingdom unless a copy of it is made and deposited in an appropriate library or archive, it is not an infringement of copyright to make that copy.
Public administration
Parliamentary and judicial proceedings.
45.—
(1)     Copyright is not infringed by anything done for the purposes of parliamentary or judicial proceedings.
(2)     Copyright is not infringed by anything done for the purposes of reporting such proceedings; but this shall not be construed as authorising the copying of a work which is itself a published report of the proceedings.
Royal Commissions and statutory inquiries.
46.—
(1)     Copyright is not infringed by anything done for the purposes of the proceedings of a Royal Commission or statutory inquiry.
(2)     Copyright is not infringed by anything done for the purpose of reporting any such proceedings held in public; but this shall not be construed as authorising the copying of a work which is itself a published report of the proceedings.
(3)     Copyright in a work is not infringed by the issue to the public of copies of the report of a Royal Commission or statutory inquiry containing the work or material from it.
(4)     In this section—
1973. c. 36.
“Royal Commission” includes a Commission appointed for Northern Ireland by the Secretary of State in pursuance of the prerogative powers of Her Majesty delegated to him under section 7(2) of the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973; and
“statutory inquiry” means an inquiry held or investigation conducted in pursuance of a duty imposed or power conferred by or under an enactment.
Material open to public inspection or on official register.
47.—
(1)     Where material is open to public inspection pursuant to a statutory requirement, or is on a statutory register, any copyright in the material as a literary work is not infringed by the copying of so much of the material as contains factual information of any description, by or with the authority of the appropriate person, for a purpose which does not involve the issuing of copies to the public.
(2)     Where material is open to public inspection pursuant to a statutory requirement, copyright is not infringed by the copying or issuing to the public of copies of the material, by or with the authority of the appropriate person, for the purpose of enabling the material to be inspected at a more convenient time or place or otherwise facilitating the exercise of any right for the purpose of which the requirement is imposed.
(3)     Where material which is open to public inspection pursuant to a statutory requirement, or which is on a statutory register, contains information about matters of general scientific, technical, commercial or economic interest, copyright is not infringed by the copying or issuing to the public of copies of the material, by or with the authority of the appropriate person, for the purpose of disseminating that information.
(4)     The Secretary of State may by order provide that subsection (1), (2) or (3) shall, in such cases as may be specified in the order, apply only to copies marked in such manner as may be so specified.
(5)     The Secretary of State may by order provide that subsections (1) to (3) apply, to such extent and with such modifications as may be specified in the order—
(a)     to material made open to public inspection by—
     (i)     an international organisation in the order, or
     (ii)     a person so specified who has functions in the United Kingdom under an international agreement to which the United Kingdom is party, or
(b)     to a register maintained by an international organisation specified in the order,
as they apply in relation to material open to public inspection pursuant to a statutory requirement or to a statutory register.
(6)     In this section—
“appropriate person” means the person required to make the material open to public inspection or, as the case may be, the person maintaining the register;
“statutory register” means a register maintained in pursuance of a statutory requirement; and
“statutory requirement” means a requirement imposed by provision made by or under an enactment.
(7)     An order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.
Material communicated to the Crown in the course of public business.
48.—
(1)     This section applies where a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work has in the course of public business been communicated to the Crown for any purpose, by or with the licence of the copyright owner and a document or other material thing recording or embodying the work is owned by or in the custody or control of the Crown.
(2)     The Crown may, for the purpose for which the work was communicated to it, or any related purpose which could reasonably have been anticipated by the copyright owner, copy the work and issue copies of the work to the public without infringing any copyright in the work.
(3)     The Crown may not copy a work, or issue copies of a work to the public, by virtue of this section if the work has previously been published otherwise than by virtue of this section.
(4)     In subsection (1) “public business” includes any activity carried on by the Crown.
(5)     This section has effect subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Crown and the copyright owner.
Public records. 1958 c. 51. 1937 c. 43. 1923 c. 20 (N.I.).
49. Material which is comprised in public records within the meaning of the Public Records Act 1958, the Public Records (Scotland) Act 1937 or the Public Records Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 which are open to public inspection in pursuance of that Act, may be copied, and a copy may be supplied to any person, by or with the authority of any officer appointed under that Act, without infringement of copyright.
Acts done under statutory authority.
50.—
(1)     Where the doing of a particular act is specifically authorised by an Act of Parliament, whenever passed, then, unless the Act provides otherwise, the doing of that act does not infringe copyright.
(2)     Subsection (1) applies in relation to an enactment contained in Northern Ireland legislation as it applies in relation to an Act of Parliament.
(3)     Nothing in this section shall be construed as excluding any defence of statutory authority otherwise available under or by virtue of any enactment.
Designs
Design documents and models.
51.—
(1)     It is not an infringement of any copyright in a design document or model recording or embodying a design for anything other than an artistic work or a typeface to make an article to the design or to copy an article made to the design.
(2)     Nor is it an infringement of the copyright to issue to the public, or include in a film, broadcast or cable programme service, anything the making of which was, by virtue of subsection (1), not an infringement of that copyright.
(3)     In this section—
“design” means the design of any aspect of the shape or configuration (whether internal or external) of the whole or part of an article, other than surface decoration; and
“design document” means any record of a design, whether in the form of a drawing, a written description, a photograph, data stored in a computer or otherwise.
Effect of exploitation of design derived from artistic work.
52.—
(1)     This section applies where an artistic work has been exploited, by or with the licence of the copyright owner, by—
(a)     making by an industrial process articles falling to be treated for the purposes of this Part as copies of the work, and
(b)     marketing such articles, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.
(2)     After the end of the period of 25 years from the end of the calendar year in which such articles are first marketed, the work may be copied by making articles of any description, or doing anything for the purpose of making articles of any description, and anything may be done in relation to articles so made, without infringing copyright in the work.
(3)     Where only part of an artistic work is exploited as mentioned in subsection (1), subsection (2) applies only in relation to that part.
(4)     The Secretary of State may by order make provision—
(a)     as to the circumstances in which an article, or any description of article, is to be regarded for the purposes of this section as made by an industrial process;
(b)     excluding from the operation of this section such articles of a primarily literary or artistic character as he thinks fit.
(5)     An order shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.
(6)     In this section—
(a)     references to articles do not include films; and
(b)     references to the marketing of an article are to its being sold or let for hire or offered or exposed for sale or hire.
Things done in reliance on registration of design. 1949 c. 88.
53.—
(1)     The copyright in an artistic work is not infringed by anything done—
(a)     in pursuance of an assignment or licence made or granted by a person registered under the Registered Designs Act 1949 as the proprietor of a corresponding design, and
(b)     in good faith in reliance on the registration and without notice of any proceedings for the cancellation of the registration or for rectifying the relevant entry in the register of designs;
and this is so notwithstanding that the person registered as the proprietor was not the proprietor of the design for the purposes of the 1949 Act.
(2)     In subsection (1) a “corresponding design”, in relation to an artistic work, means a design within the meaning of the 1949 Act which if applied to an article would produce something which would be treated for the purposes of this Part as a copy of the artistic work.
Typefaces
Use of typeface in ordinary course of printing.
54.—
(1)     It is not an infringement of copyright in an artistic work consisting of the design of a typeface—
(a)     to use the typeface in the ordinary course of typing, composing text, typesetting or printing,
(b)     to possess an article for the purpose of such use, or
(c)     to do anything in relation to material produced by such use;
and this is so notwithstanding that an article is used which is an infringing copy of the work.
(2)     However, the following provisions of this Part apply in relation to persons making, importing or dealing with articles specifically designed or adapted for producing material in a particular typeface, or possessing such articles for the purpose of dealing with them, as if the production of material as mentioned in subsection (1) did infringe copyright in the artistic work consisting of the design of the typeface—
section 24 (secondary infringement: making, importing, possessing or dealing with article for making infringing copy),
sections 99 and 100 (order for delivery up and right of seizure),
section 107(2) (offence of making or possessing such an article), and
section 108 (order for delivery up in criminal proceedings).
(3)     The references in subsection (2) to “dealing with” an article are to selling, letting for hire, or offering or exposing for sale or hire, exhibiting in public, or distributing.
Articles for producing material in particular typeface.
55.—
(1)     This section applies to the copyright in an artistic work consisting of the design of a typeface where articles specifically designed or adapted for producing material in that typeface have been marketed by or with the licence of the copyright owner.
(2)     After the period of 25 years from the end of the calendar year in which the first such articles are marketed, the work may be copied by making further such articles, or doing anything for the purpose of making such articles, and anything may be done in relation to articles so made, without infringing copyright in the work.
(3)     In subsection (1) “marketed” means sold, let for hire or offered or exposed for sale or hire, in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.
Works in electronic form
Transfers of copies of works in electronic form.
56.—
(1)     This section applies where a copy of a work in electronic form has been purchased on terms which, expressly or impliedly or by virtue of any rule of law, allow the purchaser to copy the work, or to adapt it or make copies of an adaptation, in connection with his use of it.
(2)     If there are no express terms—
(a)     prohibiting the transfer of the copy by the purchaser, imposing obligations which continue after a transfer, prohibiting the assignment of any licence or terminating any licence on a transfer, or
(b)     providing for the terms on which a transferee may do the things which the purchaser was permitted to do,
anything which the purchaser was allowed to do may also be done without infringement of copyright by a transferee; but any copy, adaptation or copy of an adaptation made by the purchaser which is not also transferred shall be treated as an infringing copy for all purposes after the transfer.
(3)     The same applies where the original purchased copy is no longer usable and what is transferred is a further copy used in its place.
(4)     The above provisions also apply on a subsequent transfer, with the substitution for references in subsection (2) to the purchaser of references to the subsequent transferor.
Miscellaneous: literary, dramatic,
musical and artistic works
Anonymous or pseudonymous works: acts permitted on assumptions
as to expiry of copyright or death of author.
57.—
(1)     Copyright in a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work is not infringed by an act done at a time when, or in pursuance of arrangements made at a time when—
(a)     it is not possible by reasonable inquiry to ascertain the identity of the author, and
(b)     it is reasonable to assume—
     (i)     that copyright has expired, or
     (ii)     that the author died 50 years or more before the beginning of the calendar year in which the act is done or the arrangements are made.
(2)     Subsection (1)(b)(ii) does not apply in relation to—
(a)     a work in which Crown copyright subsists, or
(b)     a work in which copyright originally vested in an international organisation by virtue of section 168 and in respect of which an Order under that section specifies a copyright period longer than 50 years.
(3)     In relation to a work of joint authorship—
(a)     the reference in subsection (1) to its being possible to ascertain the identity of the author shall be construed as a reference to its being possible to ascertain the identity of any of the authors, and
(b)     the reference in subsection (1)(b)(ii) to the author having died shall be construed as a reference to all the authors having died.
Use of notes or recordings of spoken words in certain cases.
58.—
(1)     Where a record of spoken words is made, in writing or otherwise, for the purpose—
(a)     of reporting current events, or
(b)     of broadcasting or including in a cable programme service the whole or part of the work,
it is not an infringement of any copyright in the words as a literary work to use the record or material taken from it (or to copy the record, or any such material, and use the copy) for that purpose, provided the following conditions are met.
(2)     The conditions are that—
(a)     the record is a direct record of the spoken words and is not taken from a previous record or from a broadcast or cable programme;
(b)     the making of the record was not prohibited by the speaker and, where copyright already subsisted in the work, did not infringe copyright;
(c)     the use made of the record or material taken from it is not of a kind prohibited by or on behalf of the speaker or copyright owner before the record was made; and
(d)     the use is by or with the authority of a person who is lawfully in possession of the record.
Public reading or recitation.
59.—
(1)     The reading or recitation in public by one person of a reasonable extract from a published literary or dramatic work does not infringe any copyright in the work if it is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgement.
(2)     Copyright in a work is not infringed by the making of a sound recording, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of a reading or recitation which by virtue of subsection (1) does not infringe copyright in the work, provided that the recording, broadcast or cable programme consists mainly of material in relation to which it is not necessary to rely on that subsection.
Abstracts of scientific or technical articles.
60.—
(1)     Where an article on a scientific or technical subject is published in a periodical accompanied by an abstract indicating the contents of the article, it is not an infringement of copyright in the abstract, or in the article, to copy the abstract or issue copies of it to the public.
(2)     This section does not apply if or to the extent that there is a licensing scheme certified for the purposes of this section under section 143 providing for the grant of licences.
Recordings of folksongs.
61.—
(1)     A sound recording of a performance of a song may be made for the purpose of including it in an archive maintained by a designated body without infringing any copyright in the words as a literary work or in the accompanying musical work, provided the conditions in subsection (2) below are met.
(2)     The conditions are that—
(a)     the words are unpublished and of unknown authorship at the time the recording is made,
(b)     the making of the recording does not infringe any other copyright, and
(c)     its making is not prohibited by any performer.
(3)     Copies of a sound recording made in reliance on subsection (1) and included in an archive maintained by a designated body may, if the prescribed conditions are met, be made and supplied by the archivist without infringing copyright in the recording or the works included in it.
(4)     The prescribed conditions shall include the following—
(a)     that copies are only supplied to persons satisfying the archivist that they require them for purposes of research or private study and will not use them for any other purpose, and
(b)     that no person is furnished with more than one copy of the same recording.
(5)     In this section—
(a)     “designated” means designated for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State, who shall not designate a body unless satisfied that it is not established or conducted for profit,
(b)     “prescribed” means prescribed for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State, and
(c)     references to the archivist include a person acting on his behalf.
(6)     An order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.
Representation of certain artistic works on public display.
62.—
(1)     This section applies to—
(a)     buildings, and
(b)     sculptures, models for buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place of in premises open to the public.
(2)     The copyright in such a work is not infringed by—
(a)     making a graphic work representing it,
(b)     making a photograph or film of it, or
(c)     broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.
(3)     Nor is the copyright infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of the copyright.
Advertisement of sale of artistic work.
63.—
(1)     It is not an infringement of copyright in an artistic work to copy it, or to issue copies to the public, for the purpose of advertising the sale of the work.
(2)     Where a copy which would otherwise be an infringing copy is made in accordance with this section but is subsequently dealt with for any other purpose, it shall be treated as an infringing copy for the purposes of that dealing, and if that dealing infringes copyright for all subsequent purposes.
For this purpose “dealt with” means sold or let for hire, offered or exposed for sale or hire, exhibited in public or distributed.
Making of subsequent works by same artist.
64. Where the author of an artistic work is not the copyright owner, he does not infringe the copyright by copying the work in making another artistic work, provided he does not repeat or imitate the main design of the earlier work.
Reconstruction of buildings.
65. Anything done for the purposes of reconstructing a building does not infringe any copyright—
(a)     in the building, or
(b)     in any drawings or plans in accordance with which the building was, by or with the licence of the copyright owner, constructed.
Miscellaneous: sound recordings,
films and computer programs
Rental of sound recordings, films and computer programs.
66.—
(1)     The Secretary of State may by order provide that in such cases as may be specified in the order the rental to the public of copies of sound recordings, films or computer programs shall be treated as licensed by the copyright owner subject only to the payment of such reasonable royalty or other payment as may be agreed or determined in default of agreement by the Copyright Tribunal.
(2)     No such order shall apply if, or to the extent that, there is a licensing scheme certified for the purposes of this section under section 143 providing for the grant of licences.
(3)     An order may make different provision for different cases and may specify cases by reference to any factor relating to the work, the copies rented, the renter or the circumstances of the rental.
(4)     An order shall be made by statutory instrument; and no order shall be made unless a draft of it has been laid before and approved by a resolution of each House of Parliament.
(5)     Copyright in a computer program is not infringed by the rental of copies to the public after the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which copies of it were first issued to the public in electronic form.
(6)     Nothing in this section affects any liability under section 23 (secondary infringement) in respect of the rental of infringing copies.
Playing of sound recordings for purposes of club, society, &c.
67.—
(1)     It is not an infringement of the copyright in a sound recording to play it as part of the activities of, or for the benefit of, a club, society or other organisation if the following conditions are met.
(2)     The conditions are—
(a)     that the organisation is not established or conducted for profit and its main objects are charitable or are otherwise concerned with the advancement of religion, education or social welfare, and
(b)     that the proceeds of any charge for admission to the place where the recording is to be heard are applied solely for the purposes of the organisation.
Miscellaneous: broadcasts and cable programmes
Incidental recording for purposes of broadcast or cable programme.
68.—
(1)     This section applies where by virtue of a licence or assignment of copyright a person is authorised to broadcast or include in a cable programme service—
(a)     a literary, dramatic or musical work, or an adaptation of such a work,
(b)     an artistic work, or
(c)     a sound recording or film.
(2)     He shall by virtue of this section be treated as licensed by the owner of the copyright in the work to do or authorise any of the following for the purposes of the broadcast or cable programme—
(a)     in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work, or an adaptation of such a work, to make a sound recording or film of the work or adaptation;
(b)     in the case of an artistic work, to take a photograph or make a film of the work;
(c)     in the case of a sound recording or film, to make a copy of it.
(3)     That licence is subject to the condition that the recording, film, photograph or copy in question—
(a)     shall not be used for any other purpose, and
(b)     shall be destroyed within 28 days of being first used for broadcasting the work or, as the case may be, including it in a cable programme service.
(4)     A recording, film, photograph or copy made in accordance with this section shall be treated as an infringing copy—
(a)     for the purposes of any use in breach of the condition mentioned in subsection (3)(a), and
(b)     for all purposes after that condition or the condition mentioned in subsection (3)(b) is broken.
Recording for purposes of supervision and control of broadcasts and cable programmes.
69.—
(1)     Copyright is not infringed by the making or use by the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the purpose of maintaining supervision and control over programmes broadcast by them, of recordings of those programmes.
(2)     Copyright is not infringed by—
1981 c. 68.
(a)     the making or use of recordings by the Independent Broadcasting Authority for the purposes mentioned in section 4(7) of the Broadcasting Act 1981 (maintenance of supervision and control over programmes and advertisements); or
(b)     anything done under or in pursuance of provision included in a contract between a programme contractor and the Authority in accordance with section 21 of that Act.
(3)     Copyright is not infringed by—
1984 c. 46.
(a)     the making by or with the authority of the Cable Authority, or the use by that Authority, for the purpose of maintaining supervision and control over programmes included in services licensed under Part I of the Cable and Broadcasting Act 1984, of recordings of those programmes; or
(b)     anything done under or in pursuance of—
     (i)     a notice or direction given under section 16 of the Cable and Broadcasting Act 1984 (power of Cable Authority to require production of recordings); or
     (ii)     a condition included in a licence by virtue of section 35 of that Act (duty of Authority to secure that recordings are available for certain purposes).
Recording for purposes of time-shifting.
70. The making for private and domestic use of a recording of a broadcast or cable programme solely for the purpose of enabling it to be viewed or listened to at a more convenient time does not infringe any copyright in the broadcast or cable programme or in any work included in it.
Photographs of television broadcasts or cable programmes.
71. The making for private and domestic use of a photograph of the whole or any part of an image forming part of a television broadcast or cable programme, or a copy of such a photograph, does not infringe any copyright in the broadcast or cable programme or in any film included in it.
Free public showing or playing of broadcasts or cable programme.
72.—
(1)     The showing or playing in public of a broadcast or cable programme to an audience who have not paid for admission to the place where the broadcast or programme is to be seen or heard does not infringe any copyright in—
(a)     the broadcast or cable programme, or
(b)     any sound recording or film included in it.
(2)     The audience shall be treated as having paid for admission to a place—
(a)     if they have paid for admission to a place of which that place forms part; or
(b)     if goods or services are supplied at that place (or a place of which it forms part)—
     (i)     at prices which are substantially attributable to the facilities afforded for seeing or hearing the broadcast or programme, or
     (ii)     at prices exceeding those usually charged there and which are partly attributable to those facilities.
(3)     The following shall not be regarded as having paid for admission to a place—
(a)     persons admitted as residents or inmates of the place;
(b)     persons admitted as members of a club or society where the payment is only for membership of the club or society and the provision of facilities for seeing or hearing broadcasts or programmes is only incidental to the main purposes of the club or society.
(4)     Where the making of the broadcast or inclusion of the programme in a cable programme service was an infringement of the copyright in a sound recording or film, the fact that it was heard or seen in public by the reception of the broadcast or programme shall be taken into account in assessing the damages for that infringement.
Reception and retransmission of broadcast in cable programme service.
73.—
(1)     This section applies where a broadcast made from a place in the United Kingdom is, by reception and immediate re-transmission, included in a cable programme service.
(2)     The copyright in the broadcast is not infringed—
1984 c. 46.
(a)     if the inclusion is in pursuance of a requirement imposed under section 13(1) of the Cable and Broadcasting Act 1984 (duty of Cable Authority to secure inclusion in cable service of certain programmes), or
(b)     if and to the extent that the broadcast is made for reception in the area in which the cable programme service is provided and is not a satellite transmission or an encrypted transmission.
(3)     The copyright in any work included in the broadcast is not infringed—
(a)     if the inclusion is in pursuance of a requirement imposed under section 13(1) of the Cable and Broadcasting Act 1984 (duty of Cable Authority to secure inclusion in cable service of certain programmes), or
(b)     if and to the extent that the broadcast is made for reception in the area in which the cable programme service is provided;
but where the making of the broadcast was an infringement of the copyright in the work, the fact that the broadcast was re-transmitted as a programme in a cable programme service shall be taken into account in assessing the damages for that infringement.
Provision of subtitled copies of broadcast or cable programme.
74.—
(1)     A designated body may, for the purpose of providing people who are deaf or hard of hearing, or physically or mentally handicapped in other ways, with copies which are sub-titled or otherwise modified for their special needs, make copies of television broadcasts or cable programmes and issue copies to the public, without infringing any copyright in the broadcasts or cable programmes or works included in them.
(2)     A “designated body” means a body designated for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State, who shall not designate a body unless he is satisfied that it is not established or conducted for profit.
(3)     An order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.
(4)     This section does not apply if, or to the extent that, there is a licensing scheme certified for the purposes of this section under section 143 providing for the grant of licences.
Recording for archival purposes.
75.—
(1)     A recording of a broadcast or cable programme of a designated class, or a copy of such a recording, may be made for the purpose of being placed in an archive maintained by a designated body without thereby infringing any copyright in the broadcast or cable programme or in any work included in it.
(2)     In subsection (1) “designated” means designated for the purposes of this section by order of the Secretary of State, who shall not designate a body unless he is satisfied that it is not established or conducted for profit.
(3)     An order under this section shall be made by statutory instrument which shall be subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of Parliament.
Adaptations
Adaptations.
76. An act which by virtue of this Chapter may be done without infringing copyright in a literary, dramatic or musical work does not, where that work is an adaptation, infringe any copyright in the work from which the adaptation was made.
Chapter IV
Moral Rights
Right to be identified as author or director
Right to be identified as author or director.
77.—
(1)     The author of a copyright literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, and the director of a copyright film, has the right to be identified as the author or director of the work in the circumstances mentioned in this section; but the right is not infringed unless it has been asserted in accordance with section 78.
(2)     The author of a literary work (other than words intended to be sung or spoken with music) or a dramatic work has the right to be identified whenever—
(a)     the work is published commercially, performed in public, broadcast or included in a cable programme service; or
(b)     copies of a film or sound recording including the work are issued to the public;
and that right includes the right to be identified whenever any of those events occur in relation to an adaptation of the work as the author of the work from which the adaptation was made.
(3)     The author of a musical work, or a literary work consisting of words intended to be sung or spoken with music, has the right to be identified whenever—
(a)     the work is published commercially;
(b)     copies of a sound recording of the work are issued to the public; or
(c)     a film of which the sound-track includes the work is shown in public or copies of such a film are issued to the public;
and that right includes the right to be identified whenever any of those events occur in relation to an adaptation of the work as the author of the work from which the adaptation was made.
(4)     The author of an artistic work has the right to be identified whenever—
(a)     the work is published commercially or exhibited in public, or a visual image of it is broadcast or included in a cable programme service;
(b)     a film including a visual image of the work is shown in public or copies of such a film are issued to the public; or
(c)     in the case of a work of architecture in the form of a building or a model for a building, a sculpture or a work of artistic craftsmanship, copies of a graphic work representing it, or of a photograph of it, are issued to the public.
(5)     The author of a work of architecture in the form of a building also has the right to be identified on the building as constructed or, where more than one building is constructed to the design, on the first to be constructed.
(6)     The director of a film has the right to be identified whenever the film is shown in public, broadcast or included in a cable programme service or copies of the film are issued to the public.
(7)     The right of the author or director under this section is—
(a)     in the case of commercial publication or the issue to the public of copies of a film or sound recording, to be identified in or on each copy or, if that is not appropriate, in some other manner likely to bring his identity to the notice of a person acquiring a copy,
(b)     in the case of identification on a building, to be identified by appropriate means visible to persons entering or approaching the building, and
(c)     in any other case, to be identified in a manner likely to bring his identity to the attention of a person seeing or hearing the performance, exhibition, showing, broadcast or cable programme in question;
and the identification must in each case be clear and reasonably prominent.
(8)     If the author or director in asserting his right to be identified specifies a pseudonym, initials or some other particular form of identification, that form shall be used; otherwise any reasonable form of identification may be used.
(9)     This section has effect subject to section 79 (exceptions to right).
Requirement that right be asserted.
78.—